Bananas are a key source of income and subsistence in some indigenous Shipibo communities in the Peruvian Amazon. My thesis focuses on the role of banana production in the livelihoods of Shipibo communities and how smallholder banana production is changing in Shipibo territories. Within this theme, I also explore the articulations of indigenous identity expressed by various actors and local-level understandings of changing environmental conditions. This analysis is based on interviews I conducted over a three-month period in seven rural, agricultural communities—six of which were exclusively Shipibo communities—in the region of Ucayali, Peru. The interviews addressed four main topics: (1) the mechanics of banana farming and why the informant farms bananas; (2) how each informant gained access to their land; (3) environmental changes the informant has observed and impacts of those changes on the informant; and (4) how the informant views the future of their community and the Shipibo people as a whole. As the research progressed, I became increasingly interested in the perspectives of informants and other community members on the concept of “self-governance” for the Shipibo, and what they identified as important needs for their rural communities. Many residents I spoke with were most concerned about having access to schools and health outposts, and figuring out how to sell bananas for a good price. I noted differences in the goals of urban Shipibo leadership and the goals expressed by rural Shipibo residents. These are all themes I explore in my MESc thesis.